Mithatpaşa Cad. No:51/2

Gynecological cancers

Cancer is the second disease that leads to death in the world, while gynecological cancers are increasing. In order to protect against gynecological cancers consisting of cervical, uterine, ovary, vagen, vulva and tubes, it is recommended to apply and test to women’s diseases and obstetrics once a year. There is no common cause for gynecological cancers. According to cancer types, risk factors have changed.

Cervical cancer: The use of cigarettes, sexually transmitted diseases, especially human papilloma virus infection (HPV), sexual intercourse at an early age, husband polymonic women, is considered a low socio-economic situation risk factor.

Uterine cancer: Obesity, a history of diabetes, late menopause age, infertility, without progesterone increases the risk of using estrogen alone.

Ovarian cancer: No apparent cause was detected. However, age, familial factors include high animal fat diet, the use of powder, environmental and genetic factors are believed to be effective in ovarian cancer. For example, a life-long woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer is 1.4 percent, while the first-degree relative increases up to 7 per cent in women with ovarian cancer, 5 percent in two first-degree relatives.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of gynecologic cancers differ according to the organ being held. The symptom of cervical cancer occurs as vaginal bleeding in the style of spotting after sexual intercourse, increase in menstrual amount or duration, as brown vaginal discharge.   In advanced stages, waist and pubic pain, difficulty in urinating or leg edema can be seen. Uterine cancer is a cancer that gives early findings, symptoms of abnormal bleeding before menopause or during menopause. If the ovarian cancer is unfortunately late, it gives the findings and the findings are not specific. Abdominal swelling, pain, indigestion, increase around the abdomen, abnormal vaginal bleeding are the most common symptoms. Due to late findings, 70 percent of ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed in phases 3 and 4. The most frequent findings of vulva cancer are chronic itching, mass, pain, bleeding, and ulcers that are addressed in the Vulcan.

Gynecological cancers can lead to death!

Gynecological cancers are generally subject to mortality rates, histological type and degree, the patient’s general condition varies depending on the age and surgery performed. Cancer, which has the worst life period, is emphasized due to the late finding of ovarian carcinoma.  The average life expectancy after diagnosis is 35 percent. The life expectancy is better than ovarian cancer, as uterine cancer is given earlier symptoms. Life expectancy rates for all phases are as follows: The stage is 75 percent, stage II is 60 percent, stage is 30 percent and stage 4 is 10 percent. The average life expectancy in cervical cancer with increased early diagnosis by the Pap smear method is around 80 percent. The stage is 90 percent, stage 2 is 65, and stage 4 is 15 percent.

Methods used in diagnosis

Thanks to the methods developed for early diagnosis of gynecologic cancers, the success rate in the treatment is also increasing. Cervical cancer from gynecology cancers is considered as the type of cancer that has increased the most early diagnosis in recent years.  In this cancer, the screening method with cytological examinations of cells spilled from the cervix called Pap smear test is recognized in the early stages of cellular changes with the potential for canceration in the future. With the elimination of these lesions, a significant reduction in mortality rate was detected in cervical cancer. So, a single negative Pap smear test reduces the risk of cervical cancer by 45 percent. The life-long nine-negative Pap smear test reduces this risk by 99%. The Pap smear test, the most effective screening method for cervical cancer, is recommended once a year to every woman with sexual activity over the age of 18 years.

Early diagnosis of uterine and ovarian cancer

Screening methods used in gynecological cancers are not very effective in uterine cancer.  Uterine cancer is usually diagnosed because it gives early symptoms. However, fat, diabetic, estrogen-treated people with high risk can be scanned.. Vaginal sonography, endometrial biopsy and office hysteroscopy can be used for screening.   If the thickness of the intrauterine layer measured by vaginal sonography is below 4 millimeters, the risk of uterine cancer is very low. There is unfortunately no effective early diagnosis and screening method for ovarian cancer which is the most deadly among all gynecological cancers. Annual routine examination is not sufficient for early diagnosis. For the first time, 80 percent of ovarian cancer can be determined by the Ca-125 tumor marker, which was defined in the 1980s, with a surface antigen.  However, in the pre-menopausal period, Ca-125 values can be elevated depending on the cause of pregnancy, uterine tissue, which is described as being present in areas outside the uterus, as well as benign ovarian cysts. In addition, 50 percent of early ovarian cancers are normally Ca-125. The use of the Ca-125 with transvaginal sonography and Doppler ultrasound increases the quality of the screening, but is not sufficient for routine examination.

Treatment of gynecological cancers

The success of the treatment of gynecologic cancers varies according to the stages of the disease. It is noted that effective treatment is usually surgical.  Surgery is applied in all phases of ovarian cancer.  Usually these cases are presented in the late period and the patient refers to the advanced stage. Patients should have full surgical staging and the tumor mass should be reduced to the minimum level. Surgical staging means not only the removal of the uterus and ovaries, but the prevalence of cancer within the entire abdomen, and the cleaning of the designated areas where it is spread. Thus, the patient will receive maximum benefit from the future chemotherapy. Usually the first post of ovarian cancer is performed after chemotherapy and again an operation called “Second view Surgery”. As a result of this surgery, chemotherapy is given again. In the early stages of cervical cancer, surgery is applied in the advanced stages of radiation therapy to create the basic treatment option. In uterine cancer, surgery is the first treatment option. It can then be applied to radiotherapy and chemotherapy if necessary. Treatment and follow-up of gynecologic cancer patients should be performed multidisciplinary. Multiple treatments can be used in combination with the recurrence of diseases.

Recommendations for protection

Because the causes of gynecologic cancers are very different, it is necessary to consider many factors in protection. In order to protect against cervical cancer, protection from sexually transmitted diseases, especially human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, comes to the fore.  In women using birth control pill in reproductive age, it is known that the uterine and ovarian cancers are significantly decreased in the incidence of cancer. Smoking is also recommended for the release of cigarettes because the cervical cancer increases the risk.

Cervical cancer: early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer is possible, but a Pap smear test is not necessarily a significant complaint every year. Vaccine studies have been underway for HPV infections in recent years. However, it has not yet entered into routine use.

Uterine cancer: Preventing excessive weight gain, unrequited estrogen retrieval and cancer-potential uterine diseases need to be treated appropriately.

Ovarian cancer: The use of birth control pills and preventive interventions in the presence of ovarian cancer may be recommended in the family. So the ovary can be taken. However, this may not always eliminate ovarian cancer. Prevention of gynecologic cancers is the best routine of annual examinations without neglect


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